Free Access
Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
Volume 46, Number 2, March-April 2006
Page(s) 105 - 119
Published online 06 April 2006
References of Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 46 105-119
  1. Lee LA, Ferguson JD, Galligan DJ. The use of survival analysis to quantitate days open, advantages and implications. Acta Vet Scand 1988, 84: 433-435.
  2. Borsberry S, Dobson H. Periparturient diseases and their effect on reproductive performance in five dairy herds. Vet Rec 1989, 124: 217-219 [PubMed].
  3. Fourichon C, Seegers H, Malher X. Effect of disease on reproduction in the dairy cow: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology 2000, 53: 1729-1759 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  4. Cassida LE, McShan WH, Meyer RK. Effects of an unfractionated pituitary extract upon cystic ovaries and nymphomania in cows. J Anim Sci 1944, 3: 273.
  5. Garm O. A study of bovine nymphomania. Acta Endocrinol 1949, Suppl 3: 1.
  6. Dobson H, Ribadu AY, Noble KM, Tebble JE, Ward WR. Ultrasonography and hormone profiles of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-induced persistent ovarian follicles (cysts) in cattle. J Reprod Fertil 2000, 120: 405-410 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  7. Noble KM, Tebble JE, Harvey D, Dobson H. Ultrasonography and hormone profiles of persistent ovarian follicles (cysts) induced with low doses of progesterone in cattle. J Reprod Fertil 2000, 120: 361-366 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  8. Day N. The diagnosis, differentiation, and pathogenesis of cystic ovarian disease. Vet Med 1991, 86: 753-760.
  9. Kesler DJ, Garverick HA. Ovarian cysts in dairy cattle: a review. J Anim Sci 1982, 55: 1147-1159 [PubMed].
  10. Woolums AR, Peter AT. Cystic Ovarian Condition in Cattle. Part I Folliculogenesis and Ovulation. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet (Food Animal) 1994, 16: 935-942.
  11. Youngquist RS. Cystic follicular degeneration in the cow. In: Morrow D (Ed), Current therapy in Theriogenology, 2nd ed, WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, 1986, p 243-246.
  12. Bleach ECL, Glencross RG, Knight PG. Association between ovarian follicle development and pregnancy rates in dairy cows undergoing spontaneous oestrous cycles. Reproduction 2004, 127: 621-629 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  13. Lopez H, Satter LD, Wiltbank MC. Relationship between level of milk production and estrous behavior of lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2004, 81: 209-223 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  14. Savio JD, Boland MP, Roche JF. Development of dominant follicles and length of ovarian cycles in post-partum dairy cows. J Reprod Fertil 1990, 88: 581-591 [PubMed].
  15. Cook DL, Smith CA, Parfet JR, Youngquist RS, Brown EM, Garverick HA. Fate and turnover rate of ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows. J Reprod Fertil 1990, 89: 155-166.
  16. Hamilton SA, Garverick HA, Keisler DH, Xu ZZ, Loos K, Youngquist RS, Salfen BE. Characterization of ovarian follicular cysts and associated endocrine profiles in dairy cows. Biol Reprod 1995, 53: 890-898 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  17. Kesler DJ, Garverick HA, Caudle AB, Elmore RG, Youngquist RS, Bierschwal CJ. Reproductive hormone and ovarian changes in cows with ovarian cysts. J Dairy Sci 1980, 63: 166-170 [PubMed].
  18. Yoshioka K, Iwamura S, Kamomae H. Ultrasonic observations on the turnover of ovarian follicular cysts and associated changes of plasma LH, FSH, progesterone and oestradiol-17$\beta$ in cows. Res Vet Sci 1996, 61: 240-244 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  19. Peter AT. An update on cystic ovarian degeneration in cattle. Reprod Domest Anim 2004, 39: 1-7 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  20. Wiltbank MC, Gümen A, Sartori R. Physiological classification of anovulatory conditions in cattle. Theriogenology 2002, 57: 21-52 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  21. Al-Dahash SYA, David JSE. Anatomical features of cystic ovaries found during an abattoir survey. Vet Rec 1977, 101: 320-324 [PubMed].
  22. Gümen A, Sartori R, Costa FMJ, Wiltbank MC. A GnRH/LH surge without subsequent progesterone exposure can induce development of follicular cysts. J Dairy Sci 2002, 85: 43-50 [PubMed].
  23. Hatler TB, Hayes SH, Laranja da Fonseca LF, Silvia WJ. Relationship between endogenous progesterone and follicular dynamics in lactating dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts. Biol Reprod 2003, 69: 218-223 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  24. Zulu VC, Sawamukai Y, Nakada K, Kida K, Moriyoshi M. Relationship among insulin-like growth factor-I, blood metabolites and post partum ovarian function in dairy cows. J Vet Med Sci 2002, 64: 879-885 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  25. Opsomer G, Coryn M, Mijten P, Kruif A. Post-partum anoestrus bij melkvee. Vlaams Diergeneesk Tijdsch 1997, 66: 61-67.
  26. Garverick HA. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1997, 80: 995-1004 [PubMed].
  27. Booth JM. The milk progesterone test as an aid to the diagnosis of cystic ovaries in dairy cows. Vet Rec 1988, 123: 437-439 [PubMed].
  28. Dinsmore RP, White ME, Guard CL, Jasko DJ, Perdrizet JA, Powers PM, Smith MC. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on clinical response and fertility in cows with cystic ovaries, as related to milk progesterone concentration and days after parturition. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989, 195: 327-330 [PubMed].
  29. Douthwaite R, Dobson H. Comparison of different methods of diagnosis of cystic ovarian disease in cattle and an assessment of its treatment with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. Vet Rec 2000, 147: 355-359 [PubMed].
  30. Leslie KE, Bosu WTK. Plasma progesterone concentrations in dairy cows with cystic ovaries and clinical response following fenprostalene. Can Vet J 1983, 24: 352-356.
  31. Nakao T, Sugihashi A, Saga N, Tsunoda N, Kawata K. Use of milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay for differential diagnosis of follicular cyst, luteal cyst, and cystic corpus luteum in cows. Am J Vet Res 1983, 44: 888-890 [PubMed].
  32. Edmondson AJ, Fissore RA, Pashen RL, Bondurant R. The use of ultrasonography for the study of the bovine reproductive tract 1. Normal and pathological ovarian structures. Anim Reprod Sci 1986, 12: 157-165 [CrossRef].
  33. Jeffcoate IA, Ayliffe TR. An ultrasonographic study of bovine cystic ovarian disease and its treatment. Vet Rec 1995, 136: 406-410 [PubMed].
  34. Max A, Jurka P, Witowski M, Boryczko Z, Bostedt H. Kritischer Vergleich zwischen klinisch und ultrasonografisch erfassten Ovarbefunden im Interoestrus des Rindes. Tier Prax 1997, 25: 207-211.
  35. Hanzen C, Pieterse M, Scenczi O, Drost M. Relative accuracy of the identification of ovarian structures in the cow by ultrasonography and palpation per rectum. Vet J 2000, 159: 161-170 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  36. Scott SJ, Dobson H. Postmortem comparison of ultrasonography, endocrine measurements and histology of large abnormal follicles in cows. Vet Rec 1997, 140: 654-656 [PubMed].
  37. Bartlett PC, Ngategize PK, Kaneene JB, Kirk JH, Anderson SM, Mather EC. Cystic follicular disease in Michigan Holstein-Friesian cattle: incidence, descriptive epidemiology and economic impact. Prev Vet Med 1986, 4: 15-33 [CrossRef].
  38. Day N. The treatment and prevention of cystic ovarian disease. Vet Med 1991, 86: 761-766.
  39. Erb HN, White ME. Incidence rates of cystic follicles in Holstein cows according to 15-day and 30-day intervals. Cornell Vet 1981, 71: 326-331 [PubMed].
  40. Laporte HM, Hogeveen H, Schukken YH, Noordhuizen JPTM. Cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cattle I. Incidence, risk factors and consequences. Livest Prod Sci 1994, 38: 191-197 [CrossRef].
  41. Lopez-Diaz MC, Bosu WTK. A review of cystic ovarian degeneration in ruminants. Theriogenology 1992, 37: 1163-1183 [CrossRef].
  42. Opsomer G, Coryn M, Deluyker H, de Kruif A. An analysis of ovarian dysfunction in high yielding dairy cows after calving based on progesterone profiles. Reprod Domest Anim 1998, 33: 193-204.
  43. Refsdal AO. Ovariecyster hos melkekyr. Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift 1982, 94: 789-796.
  44. Bosu WTK, Peter AT. Evidence for a role of intrauterine infections in the pathogenesis of cystic ovaries in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology 1987, 28: 725-736 [CrossRef].
  45. López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yániz J, Fenech M, López-Béjar M. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 2002, 58: 1623-1632 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  46. Thatcher WW, Wilcox CJ. Post partum estrus as an indicator of reproductive status in the dairy cow. J Dairy Sci 1973, 56: 608-610 [PubMed].
  47. Shrestha HK, Nakao T, Higaki T, Suzuki T, Akita M. Effects of abnormal ovarian cycles during pre-service period postpartum on subsequent reproductive performance of high-producing Holstein cows. Theriogenology 2004, 61: 1559-1571 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  48. Hooijer GA, van Oijen MAAJ, Frankena K, Valks MMH. Fertility parameters of dairy cows with cystic ovarian disease after treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Vet Rec 2001, 149: 383-386 [PubMed].
  49. Cole WJ, Bierschwal CJ, Youngquist RS, Braun WF. Cystic ovarian disease in a herd of Holstein cows: a hereditary correlation. Theriogenology 1986, 25: 813-820 [CrossRef].
  50. Kirk JH, Huffman EM, Lane M. Bovine cystic ovarian disease: hereditary relationships and case study. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982, 181: 474-476 [PubMed].
  51. Hooijer GA, Lubbers RBF, Ducro BJ, van Arendonk JAM, Kaal-Lansbergen LMTE, van der Lende T. Genetic parameters for cystic ovarian disease in Dutch black and white dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2001, 84: 286-291 [PubMed].
  52. Lin HK, Oltenacu PA, Van Vleck LD, Erb HN, Smith RD. Heritabilities of and genetic correlations among six health problems in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 1989, 72: 180-186 [PubMed].
  53. Uribe HA, Kennedy BW, Martin SW, Kelton DF. Genetic parameters for common health disorders of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 1995, 78: 421-430 [PubMed].
  54. Anonymous. Swedish Agriculture. Statistics Yearbook for 1976 to 1977, 1978, p 114.
  55. Roberts SJ. Infertility in the cow. In: Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, Theriogenology, 3rd ed, Woodstock, Vermont, p 421-433.
  56. Brown JL, Schoenemann HM, Reeves JJ. Effect of treatment on LH and FSH receptors in chronic cystic-ovarian diseased dairy cows. J Anim Sci 1986, 62: 1063-1071 [PubMed].
  57. Cook DL, Parfet JR, Smith CA, Moss GE, Youngquist RS, Garverick HA. Secretory patterns of LH and FSH during development and hypothalamic and hypophysial characteristics following development of steroid-induced ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cattle. J Reprod Fertil 1991, 91: 19-28 [PubMed].
  58. Gümen A, Wiltbank MC. An alteration in the hypothalamic action of estradiol due to lack of progesterone exposure can cause follicular cysts in cattle. Biol Reprod 2002, 66: 1689-1695 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  59. Ozturk M, Smith RF, Dobson H. Effect of prolonged exposure to oestradiol on subsequent LH secretion in ewes. J Reprod Fertil 1998, 114: 1-9 [PubMed].
  60. Gümen A, Wiltbank MC. Length of progesterone exposure needed to resolve large follicle anovular condition in dairy cows. Theriogenology 2005, 63: 202-218 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  61. Gümen A, Wiltbank MC. Follicular cysts occur after a normal estradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge if the corpus hemorrhagicum is removed. Reproduction 2005, 129: 737-745 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  62. Dobson H, Nanda AS. Reliability of cyst diagnosis and effect of energy status on LH released by estradiol or GnRH in cows with ovarian cysts. Theriogenology 1992, 37: 465-472 [CrossRef].
  63. Refsal KR, Jarrin-Maldonado JH, Nachreiner RF. Endocrine profiles in cows with ovarian cysts experimentally induced by treatment with exogenous estradiol or adrenocorticotropic hormone. Theriogenology 1987, 28: 871-889 [CrossRef].
  64. Refsal KR, Jarrin-Maldonado JH, Nachreiner RF. Basal and estradiol-induced release of gonadotropins in dairy cows with naturally occurring ovarian cysts. Theriogenology 1988, 30: 679-693 [CrossRef].
  65. Zaied AA, Garverick HA, Kesler DJ, Bierschwal CJ, Elmore RG, Youngquist RS. Luteinizing hormone response to estradiol benzoate in cows postpartum and cows with ovarian cysts. Theriogenology 1981, 16: 349-358 [CrossRef].
  66. De Silva M, Reeves JJ. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in chronically cystic and regularly cycling dairy cows. Biol Reprod 1988, 38: 264-269 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  67. Duchens M, Forsberg M, Edqvist L-E, Gustafsson H, Rodríguez-Martínez H. Effect of induced suprabasal progesterone levels around estrus on plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17$\beta$ and LH in heifers. Theriogenology 1994, 42: 1159-1169 [CrossRef].
  68. Stock AE, Fortune JE. Ovarian follicular dominance in cattle: relationship between prolonged growth of the ovulatory follicle and endocrine parameters. Endocrinology 1993, 132: 1108-1114 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  69. Vanholder T, Leroy JLMR, Dewulf J, Duchateau L, Coryn M, de Kruif A. Hormonal and metabolic profiles of high-yielding dairy cows prior to ovarian cyst formation or first ovulation post partum. Reprod Domest Anim 2005, 40: 460-469 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  70. Ribadu AY, Nakada K, Moriyoshi M, Zhang WC, Tanaka Y, Nakao T. The role of LH pulse frequency in ACTH-induced ovarian follicular cysts in heifers. Anim Reprod Sci 2000, 64: 21-31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  71. Stoebel DP, Moberg GP. Repeated acute stress during the follicular phase and luteinizing hormone surge of dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 1982, 65: 92-96 [PubMed].
  72. Stoebel DP, Moberg GP. Effect of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol on luteinizing hormone surge and estrous behavior of cows. J Dairy Sci 1982, 65: 1016-1024 [PubMed].
  73. Peter AT, Bosu WTK, Dedecker RJ. Suppression of preovulatory luteinizing hormone surges in heifers after intrauterine infusions of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Am J Vet Res 1989, 50: 368-373 [PubMed].
  74. Emanuelson U, Bendixen PH. Occurrence of cystic ovaries in dairy cows in Sweden. Prev Vet Med 1991, 10: 261-271 [CrossRef].
  75. Hampton JH, Salfen BE, Bader JF, Keisler DH, Garverick HA. Ovarian follicular responses to high doses of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in lactating dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2003, 86: 1963-1969 [PubMed].
  76. Christman SA, Bailey MT, Head WA, Wheaton JE. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep. Domest Anim Endocrin 2000, 19: 133-146.
  77. Robker RL, Russell DL, Yoshioka S, Chidanada Sharma S, Lydon JP, O'Malley BW, Espey LL, Richards JS. Ovulation: a multi-gene, multi-step process. Steroids 2000, 65: 559-570 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  78. Kawate N, Inaba T, Mori J. A quantitative comparison in the bovine of steroids and gonadotropin receptors in normally developing follicles and in follicular and luteinized cysts. Anim Reprod Sci 1990, 23: 273-281 [CrossRef].
  79. Odore R, Re G, Badino P, Donn A, vigo D, Biolatti B, Girardi C. Modifications of receptor concentrations for adrenaline, steroid hormones, prostaglandin F2$\alpha$ and gonadotropins in hypophysis and ovary of dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Pharmacol Res 1999, 39: 297-304 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  80. Calder MD, Manikkam M, Salfen BE, Youngquist RS, Lubahn DB, Lamberson WR, Garverick HA. Dominant bovine ovarian follicular cysts express increased levels of messenger RNAs for luteinizing hormone receptor and 3$\beta$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase $\Delta$4,$\Delta$5 isomerase compared to normal dominant follicles. Biol Reprod 2001, 65: 471-476 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  81. Robker RL, Richards JS. Hormone-induced proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells: a coordinated balance of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D2 and p27kip1. Mol Endocrinol 1998, 12: 924-940 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  82. Wang XN, Greenwald GS. Synergistic effects of steroids with FSH on folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis and FSH- and hCG-receptors in hypophysectomized mice. J Reprod Fertil 1993, 99: 403-413 [PubMed].
  83. Byers M, Kuiper GGJM, Gustafsson J-Å, Park-Sarge O-K. Estrogen receptor-$\beta$ mRNA expression in rat ovary: down-regulation by gonadotropins. Mol Endocrinol 1997, 11: 172-182 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  84. Rosenfeld CS, Yuan X, Manikkam M, Calder MD, Garverick HA. Cloning, sequencing, and localization of bovine estrogen receptor-$\beta$ within the ovarian follicle. Biol Reprod 1999, 60: 691-697 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  85. Bao B, Kumar N, Karp RM, Garverick HA, Sundaram K. Estrogen receptor-$\beta$ expression in relation to the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor and cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat ovarian follicles. Biol Reprod 2000, 63: 1747-1755 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  86. Beam SW. Follicular development in postpartum cattle: effects of energy balance and dietary lipid. PhD dissertation, Cornell University, 1995, p 124-136.
  87. Isobe N, Yoshimura Y. Localization of apoptotic cells in the cystic ovarian follicles of cows: a DNA-end labelling histochemical study. Theriogenology 2000, 53: 897-904 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  88. Isobe N, Yoshimura Y. Immunocytochemical study of cell proliferation in the cystic ovarian follicles in cow. Theriogenology 2000, 54: 1159-1169 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  89. Imai K, Khandoker MAMY, Yonai M, Takahashi T, Sato T, Ito A, Hasegawa Y, Hashizume K. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 activities in bovine follicular fluid of different-sized follicles: relationship to intra-follicular inhibin and steroid concentrations. Domest Anim Endocrin 2003, 24: 171-183.
  90. Smith MF, McIntush EW, Ricke WA, Kojima FN, Smith GW. Regulation of ovarian extracellular matrix remodelling by metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors: effects on follicular development, ovulation and luteal function. J Reprod Fertil 1999, Suppl 54: 367-381.
  91. Heuer C, Schukken YH, Dobbelaar P. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk yield as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 1999, 82: 295-304 [PubMed].
  92. Lucy MC. Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end? J Dairy Sci 2001, 84: 1277-1293 [PubMed].
  93. Rajala PJ, Gröhn YT. Disease occurrence and risk factor analysis in Finnish Ayrshire cows. Acta Vet Scan 1998, 39: 1-13.
  94. Nanda AS, Ward WR, Dobson H. The relationship between milk yield and cystic ovarian disease in cattle. Br Vet J 1989, 145: 39-45 [PubMed].
  95. Beam SW, Butler WR. Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. J Reprod Fertil 1999, Suppl 54: 411-424.
  96. Sovani S, Heuer C, Straalen WM van, Noordhuizen JPTM. Disease in high producing dairy cows following post parturient negative energy balance. Soc Vet Epid Prev Med, Annual Conference, Edinburgh, 2000.
  97. Hooijer GA, van Oijen MAAJ, Frankena K, Noordhuizen JPTM. Milk production parameters in early lactation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows. Livest Prod Sci 2003, 81: 25-33 [CrossRef].
  98. Diskin MG, Mackey DR, Roche JF, Sreenan JM. Effects of nutrition and metabolic status on circulating hormones and ovarian follicle development in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 2003, 78: 345-370 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  99. Lucy MC. Mechanisms linking nutrition and reproduction in postpartum cows. Reproduction 2003, Suppl 61: 415-427.
  100. Block SS, Butler WR, Ehrhardt RA, Bell AW, Van Amburgh ME, Boisclair YR. Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. J Endocrinol 2001, 171: 339-348 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  101. Liefers SC, Veerkamp RF, te Pas MFW, Delavaud C, Chilliard Y, van der Lende T. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight, and estrus in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2003, 86: 799-807 [PubMed].
  102. Rukkwamsuk T, Geelen MJH, Kruip TAM, Wensing T. Interrelation of fatty acid composition in adipose tissue, serum, and liver of dairy cows during the development of fatty liver postpartum. J Dairy Sci 2000, 83: 52-59 [PubMed].
  103. Leroy JLMR, Vanholder T, Delanghe JR, Opsomer G, Van Soom A, Bols PEJ, De Wulf J, de Kruif A. Metabolic changes in follicular fluid of the dominant follicle in high-yielding dairy cows early post partum. Theriogenology 2004, 62: 1131-1143 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  104. Spicer LJ, Echternkamp SE. The ovarian insulin and insulin-like growth factor system with an emphasis on domestic animals. Domest Anim Endocrin 1995, 12: 223-245.
  105. Davoren JB, Kasson BG, Li CH, Hsueh AJW. Specific insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I-and II-binding sites on rat granulosa cells: relation to IGF action. Endocrinology 1986, 119: 2155-2162 [PubMed].
  106. Gutierrez-Aguilar CG. The effect of nutrition and metabolic hormones on follicular development in cattle. PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 1997, p 146-166.
  107. Price CA, Silva JM. Intracellular regulation of P450 aromatase by FSH and insulin in bovine granulosa cells. J Reprod Fertil 1999, Abstract Series 23: 5
  108. Matamaros IA, Cox NM, Moore AB. Exogenous insulin and additional energy affect follicular distribution, follicular steroid concentrations, and granulosa cell human chorionic gonadotropin binding in swine. Biol Reprod 1990, 43: 1-7 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  109. Armstrong DG, Gong JG, Gardner JO, Baxter G, Hogg CO, Webb R. Steroidogenesis in bovine granulosa cells: the effect of short-term changes in dietary intake. Reproduction 2002, 123: 371-378 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  110. Simpson RB, Chase CC, Spicer LJ, Vernon RK, Hammond AC, Rae DO. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma and follicular insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, follicular oestradiol and progesterone, and follicular growth in superovulated Angus and Brahman cows. J Reprod Fertil 1994, 102: 483-492 [PubMed].
  111. Beck U, Stangassinger M, Giesecke D, Meyer J. The testing of insulin receptor activity in ruminants. In: Proceedings of the Vth International Conference on Production Disease in Farm Animals, Uppsala, Sweden, 1983, p 175-178.
  112. Staufenbiel R, Rischk U, Schumacher B, Becker W. Diurnal profile, common and modified glucose tolerance test for studies into insulin and glucose regulation in dairy cows. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1992, 99: 69-75 [PubMed].
  113. Nestler JE. Insulin regulation of human ovarian androgens. Hum Reprod 1997, 12, Suppl 1: 53-62.
  114. Nestler JE. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a disorder for the generalist. Fertil Steril 1998, 70: 811-812 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  115. Yen SSC. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Hyperandrogenic Chronic Anovulation). In: Reproductive endocrinology: physiology, pathophysiology and clinical management, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1999, p 436-478.
  116. Opsomer G, Wensing T, Laevens H, Coryn M, de Kruif A. Insulin resistance: the link between metabolic disorders and cystic ovarian disease in high yielding dairy cows? Anim Reprod Sci 1999, 56: 211-222 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  117. Barash IA, Cheung CC, Weigle DS, Ren H, Kabigting EB, Kuijper JL, Clifton DK, Steiner RA. Leptin is a metabolic signal to the reproductive system. Endocrinology 1996, 137: 3144-3147 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  118. Amstalden M, Harms PG, Welsh TH Jr, Randel RD, Williams GL. Effects of leptin on gonadotropin-releasing hormone release from hypothalamic-infundibular explants and gonadotropin release from adenohypophyseal primary cell cultures: further evidence that fully nourished cattle are resistant to leptin. Anim Reprod Sci 2005, 85: 41-52 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  119. Williams GL, Amstalden M, Garcia MR, Stanko RL, Nizielski SE, Morrison CD, Keisler DH. Leptin and its role in the central regulation of reproduction in cattle. Domest Anim Endocrin 2002, 23: 339-349.
  120. Spicer LJ. Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domest Anim Endocrin 2001, 21: 251-270.
  121. Huszenicza G, Kulcsar M, Nikolic JA, Schmidt J, Korodi P, Katai L, Dieleman S, Ribiczei-Szabo P, Rudas P. Plasma leptin concentration and its interrelation with some blood metabolites, metabolic hormones and the resumption of cyclic ovarian function in postpartum dairy cows supplemented with monensin or inert fat in feed. In: Diskin MG (Ed), Fertility in the high-producing dairy cow, British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Occasional publications, 2001, 2: 405-409.
  122. Huszenicza G, Haraszti J, Molnar L, Solti L, Fekete S, Ekes K, Yaro AC. Some metabolic characteristics of dairy cows with different post partum ovarian function. J Vet Med A 1988, 35: 506-515.
  123. Mason TM, Goh T, Tchipashvili V, Sandhu H, Gupta N, Lewis GF, Giacca A. Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats. Diabetes 1999, 48: 524-530 [PubMed].
  124. Cnop M, Hannaert JC, Hoorens A, Eizirik DL, Pipeleers DG. Inverse relationship between cytotoxicity of free fatty acids in pancreatic islet cells and cellular triglyceride accumulation. Diabetes 2001, 50: 1771-1777 [PubMed].
  125. Mu Y-M, Yanase T, Nishi Y, Tanaka A, Saito M, Jin C-H, Mukasa C, Okabe T, Nomura M, Goto K, Nawata H. Saturated FFAs, palmitic acid and stearic acid, induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells. Endocrinology 2001, 142: 3590-3597 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  126. Lu ZH, Mu Y, Wang BA, Li XL, Lu JM, Li JY, Pan CY, Yanase T, Nawata H. Saturated free fatty acids, palmitic acid and stearic acid, induce apoptosis by stimulation of ceramide generation in rat testicular Leydig cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003, 303: 1002-1007 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  127. Shimabukuro M, Zhou YT, Levi M, Unger RH. Fatty acid-induced $\beta$ cell apoptosis: a link between obesity and diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 2498-2502 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  128. Vanholder T, Leroy JLMR, Van Soom A, Opsomer G, Maes D, Coryn M, de Kruif A. Effect of non-esterified fatty acids on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation in vitro. Anim Reprod Sci 2005, 87: 33-44 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  129. Vanholder T, Leroy JLMR, Van Soom A, Maes D, Coryn M, Fiers T, de Kruif A, Opsomer G. Effect of non-esterified fatty acids on bovine theca cell steroidogenesis and proliferation in vitro. Anim Reprod Sci 2005, in press.
  130. Opsomer G, Grohn YT, Hertl J, Coryn M, Deluyker H, de Kruif A. Risk factors for post partum ovarian dysfunction in high producing dairy cows in Belgium: a field study. Theriogenology 2000, 53: 841-857 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  131. Reist M, Koller A, Busato A, Küpfer U, Blum JW. First ovulation and ketone body status in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. Theriogenology 2000, 54: 685-701 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  132. Andersson L, Gustafsson AH, Emanuelson U. Effect of hyperketonemia and feeding in dairy cows. Theriogenology 1991, 36: 521-535 [CrossRef].
  133. Dohoo IR, Martin SW. Subclinical ketosis: prevalence and association with production and disease. Can J Comp Med 1984, 48: 1-5 [PubMed].
  134. Vanholder T, Leroy JLMR, Coryn M, Fiers T, de Kruif A, Opsomer G. Effects of -OH-butyrate on bovine granulosa and theca cell function in vitro. Reprod Domest Anim, in press.