Free Access
Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
Volume 42, Number 6, November-December 2002
Page(s) 573 - 580


  1. Atanassova N., McKinnell C., Walker M., Turner K.J., Fisher J.S., Morley M., Millar M.R., Groome N.P., Sharpe R.M., Permanent effects of neonatal estrogen exposure in rats on reproductive hormone levels, Sertoli cell number, and the efficiency of spermatogenesis in adulthood, Endocrinology 140 (1999) 5364-5373.
  2. Berndtson W.E., Igboeli G., Numbers of Sertoli cells, quantitative rates of sperm production, and the efficiency of spermatogenesis in relation to the daily sperm output and seminal quality of young beef bulls, Am. J. Vet. Res. 50 (1989) 1193-1197.
  3. Bitman J., Cecil H.C., Estrogenic activity of DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls, J. Agric. Food Chem. 18 (1970) 1108-1112.
  4. Bitman J., Cecil H.C., Harris S.J., Fries G.F., Estrogenic activity of o,p'-DDT in the mammalian uterus and avian oviduct, Science 162 (1968) 371-372.
  5. Bolender R.P., Correlation of morphometry and stereology with biochemical analysis of cell fractions, Int. Rev. Cytol. 55 (1978) 247-289.
  6. Chapin R.E., Harris M.W., Davis B.J., Ward S.M., Wilson R.E., Mauney M.A., Lockhart A.C., Smialowicz R.J., Moser V.C., Burka L.T., Collins B.J., The effects of perinatal/juvenile methoxychlor exposure on adult rat nervous, immune, and reproductive system function, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 40 (1997) 138-157.
  7. Colborn T., vom Saal F.S., Soto A.M., Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans, Environ. Health Perspect. 101 (1993) 378-384. Comment in: Environ. Health Perspect. 102 (1994) 256-257.
  8. Cook J.C., Johnson L., O'Connor J.C., Biegel L.B., Krams C.H., Frame S.R., Hurtt M.E., Effects of dietary 17beta-estradiol exposure on serum hormone concentrations and testicular parameters in male Crl:CD BR rats, Toxicol. Sci. 44 (1998) 155-168.
  9. Cooke P.S., Kirby J.D., Porcelli J., Increased testis growth and sperm production in adult rats following transient neonatal goitrogen treatment: optimization of the propylthiouracil dose and effects of methimazole, J. Reprod. Fertil. 97 (1993) 493-499.
  10. Davis D.L., Bradlow H.L., Wolff M., Woodruff T., Hoel D.G., Anton-Culver H., Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer, Environ. Health Perspect. 101 (1993) 372-377.
  11. Elias H., Pauly J.E., Burns E.R., Quantitative microscopy (sterology and morphometry), in: Histology and Human Microanatomy, 1978, pp. 547-576.
  12. Gray L.E. Jr., Kelce W.R., Monosson E., Ostby J.S., Birnbaum L.S., Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: Reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 131 (1995) 108-118.
  13. Griswold M.D., Mably E.R., Fritz I.B., FSH stimulation of DNA synthesis in Sertoli cells in culture, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 4 (1976) 139-149.
  14. Griswold M.D., Solari A., Tung P.S., Fritz I.B., Stimulation by FSH of DNA synthesis and of mitosis in cultured Sertoli cells prepared from the testes of immature rats, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 151 (1977) 151-165.
  15. Hammond B., Katzenellenbogen B.S., Krauthammer N., McConnell J., Estrogenic activity of the insecticide chlordecone (Kepone) and interaction with uterine estrogen receptors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76 (1979) 6641-6645.
  16. Hess R.A., Cooke P.S., Bunick D., Kirby J.D., Adult testicular enlargement induced by neonatal hypothyroidism is accompanied by increased Sertoli and germ cell numbers, Endocrinology 132 (1993) 2607-2613.
  17. Hochereau-de Reviers MT., Courot M., Sertoli cells and development of seminiferous epithelium, Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys. 18 (1978) 573-583.
  18. Johnson L., Spermatogenesis and aging in the human, J. Androl. 7 (1986) 331-354.
  19. Johnson L., Efficiency of spermatogenesis, Microsc. Res. Tech. 32 (1995) 385-422.
  20. Johnson L., Nguyen H.B., Annual cycle of the Sertoli cell population in adult stallions, J. Reprod. Fertil. 76 (1986) 311-316.
  21. Johnson L., Tatum M.E., Temporal appearance of seasonal changes in numbers of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and germ cells in stallions, Biol. Reprod. 40 (1989) 994-999.
  22. Johnson L., Petty C.S., Neaves W.B., A comparative study of daily sperm production and testicular composition in humans and rats, Biol. Reprod. 22 (1980) 1233-1243.
  23. Johnson L., Welsh T.J., Wilker C., Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System and Potential Targets of Toxicants, in: Boekleheide K., Chapin R.E., Hoyer P.B., Harris C. (eds.), Comprehensive Toxicology, First ed., vol. 10, Pergamon, New York, 1997, pp. 5-61.
  24. Johnson L., Suggs L.C., Norton Y.M., Zeh W.C., Effect of developmental age or time after transplantation on Sertoli cell number and testicular size in inbred Fischer rats, Biol. Reprod. 54 (1996) 948-959.
  25. Johnson L., Varner D.D., Tatum M.E., Scrutchfield W.L., Season but not age affects Sertoli cell number in adult stallions, Biol. Reprod. 45 (1991) 404-410.
  26. Johnson L., Zane R.S., Petty C.S., Neaves W.B., Quantification of the human Sertoli cell population: its distribution, relation to germ cell numbers, and age-related decline, Biol. Reprod. 31 (1984) 785-795.
  27. Johnson L., Suggs L.C., Norton Y.M., Welsh T.J., Wilker C.E., Effect of hypophysectomy, sex of host, and/or number of transplanted testes on Sertoli cell number and testicular size of syngeneic testicular grafts in Fischer rats, Biol. Reprod. 54 (1996) 960-969.
  28. Johnson L., Carter G.K., Varner D.D., Taylor T.S., Blanchard T.L., Rembert M.S., The relationship of daily sperm production with number of Sertoli cells and testicular size in adult horses: role of primitive spermatogonia, J. Reprod. Fertil. 100 (1994) 315-321.
  29. Johnson L., Varner D.D., Roberts M.E., Smith T.L., Keillor G.E., Scrutchfield W.L., Efficiency of spermatogenesis: a comparative approach, Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61 (2000) 471-480.
  30. Kapoor I.P., Metcalf R.L., Nystrom R.F., Sangha G.K., Comparative metabolism of methoxychlor, methiochlor, and DDT in mouse, insects, and in a model ecosystem, J. Agric. Food Chem. 18 (1970) 1145-1152.
  31. Korach K.S., Sarver P., Chae K., McIachlan J.A., McKinney J.D., Estrogen receptor-binding activity of polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls: Conformationally restricted structural probes, Mol. Pharmacol. 33 (1988) 120-126.
  32. Mably T.A., Bjerke D.L., Moore R.W., Gendron-Fitzpatrick A., Peterson R.E., In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 3. Effects on spermatogenesis and reproductive capability, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 114 (1992) 118-126.
  33. Mably T.A., Moore R.W., Goy R.W., Peterson R.E., In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 2. Effects on sexual behavior and the regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in adulthood, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 114 (1992) 108-117.
  34. Mably T.A., Moore R.W., Peterson R.E., In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 1. Effects on androgenic status, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 114 (1992) 97-107.
  35. Markewitz M., Veenema R.J., Fingerhut B., Nehme-Haily D., Sommers S.C., Cyproterone acetate (SH714) effect on histology and nucleic acid synthesis in the testes of patients with prostatic carcinoma, Invest. Urol. 6 (1969) 638-649.
  36. National Academy of Sciences, Pesticides in the diets of infants and children, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1993.
  37. Okwun O.E., Igboeli G., Ford J.J., Lunstra D.D., Johnson L., Number and function of Sertoli cells, number and yield of spermatogonia, and daily sperm production in three breeds of boar, J. Reprod. Fertil. 107 (1996) 137-149.
  38. Orth J.M., The role of follicle stimulating hormone in controlling Sertoli cell proliferation in testes of fetal rats, Endocrinology 115 (1984) 1248-1255.
  39. Orth J.M., Gunsalus G.L., Lamperti A.A., Evidence from Sertoli cell-depleted rats indicates that spermatid number in adults depends on numbers of Sertoli cells produced during perinatal development, Endocrinology 122 (1988) 787-794.
  40. Peterson R.E., Theobald H.M., Kimmel G.L., Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related compounds: Cross-species comparisons, CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 23 (1993) 283-335.
  41. Robinson A.K., Mukku V.T., Spalding D.M., Stancel G.M., The estrogenic activity of DDT: The in vitro induction of an estrogen-inducible protein by o,p-DDT, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 76 (1984) 537-543.
  42. SAS Institute. Statistical Analysis System User's Guide. Statistics, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, 1985, pp. 113-709.
  43. Sharpe R.M., The roles of oestrogen in the male, Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 9 (1998) 371-377.
  44. Sharpe R.M., Skakkebaek N.E., Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the reproductive tract?, Lancet 341 (1993) 1392-1395.
  45. Sharpe R.M., Atanassova N., McKinnell C., Parte P., Turner K.J., Fisher J.S., Kerr J.B., Groome N.P., Macpherson S., Millar M.R., Saunders P.T.K., Abnormalities in functional development of the Sertoli cells in rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol: a possible role for estrogens in Sertoli cell development, Biol. Reprod. 59 (1998) 1084-1094.
  46. Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J. (Eds.), Biometry, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA, 1969.
  47. Soto A.M., Chung K.L., Sonnenschein C., The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells, Environ. Health Perspect. 102 (1994) 380-383.
  48. Staub C., Hardy V.B., Chapin R.E., Harris M.W., Johnson L., The hidden effect of estrogenic/antiandrogenic methoxychlor on spermatogenesis, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 180 (2002) 129-135.
  49. Tullner W.W., Uterotropic action of the insecticide methoxychlor, Science 133 (1961) 647-648.
  50. Turner K.J., Sharpe R.M., Environmental oestrogens--present understanding, Rev. Reprod. 2 (1997) 69-73.
  51. Van Haaster L.H., De Jong F.H., Docter R., De Rooij D.G., High neonatal triiodothyronine levels reduce the period of Sertoli cell proliferation and accelerate tubular lumen formation in the rat testis, and increase serum inhibin levels, Endocrinology 133 (1993) 755-760.
  52. Weibel E.R., Paumgartner D., Integrated stereological and biochemical studies on hepatocytic membranes. II. Correction of section thickness effect on volume and surface density estimates, J. Cell. Biol. 77 (1978) 584-597.
  53. Welch R.M., Levin W., Conney A.H., Estrogenic action of DDT and its analogs, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14 (1969) 358-367.
  54. Wilker C.E., Safe S.H., Johnson L., Indole-3-carbinol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces daily sperm production and laters epididymal function, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 30 (1996) 142.


Copyright INRA, EDP Sciences