Free Access
Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
Volume 41, Number 4, July-August 2001
Page(s) 349 - 364


Balcells J., Guada J.A., Peiro J.M., Simultaneous determination of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Chromatogr. 575 (1992) 153-157.
Beever D.E., Cottrill B.R., Protein systems for feeding ruminant livestock: a European Assessment, J. Dairy Sci. 77 (1994) 2031-2043.
Blank R., Südekum K.H., Immig I., Kleinmans J., Synchroner Abbau von Kohlenhydraten und Rohprotein in den Vormägen - Eine neue Variable für die Rationsgestaltung?, Übers. Tierernährg. 26 (1998) 157-188.
Burroughs W.N., Frank A., Gerlaugh P., Bethke R.M., Preliminary observations upon factors influencing cellulose digestion by rumen micro-organisms, J. Nutr. 40 (1950) 9-24.
Carlsson J., Pehrson B., The influence of the dietary balance between energy and protein on milk urea concentration. Experimental trials assessed by two different protein evaluation systems, Acta Vet. Scand. 35 (1994) 193-205.
Castro F.B., Ørskov E.R., Selmer-Olsen I., Johnsen F., Improved properties of a novel controlled release feed grade urea, S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29 (1999) 161-162.
Cecava M.J., Parker J.E., Intestinal supply of amino acids in steers fed ruminally degradable and undegradable crude protein sources alone and in combination, J. Anim. Sci. 71 (1993) 1596-1605.
Cecava M.J., Merchen N.R., Berger L.L., Fahey G.C. Jr., Effects of dietary energy level and protein source on site of digestion and duodenal nitrogen and amino acid flows in steers, J. Anim. Sci. 66 (1988) 961-974.
Chamberlain D.G., Choung J.J., The importance of rate of ruminal fermentation of energy sources in diets for dairy cows, in: Garnsworthy P.C., Cole D.J.A. (Eds.), Recent advances in animal nutrition, Nothingham University Press, Nothingham, 1995, pp. 3-27.
Chen X.B., Chen Y.K., Franklin M.F., Ørskov E.R., Shand W.J., The effect of feed intake and body weight on purine derivative excretion and microbial protein supply in sheep, J. Anim. Sci. 70 (1992) 1534-1542.
Chen X.B., Fujihara T., Nakamura K., Mawuenyegah P.O., Franklin M.R., Kyle D.J., Response of urinary and plasma purine derivatives to various rates and infusion patterns of purines in sheep nourished by intragastric infusion, J. Agric. Sci. 129 (1997) 343-352.
Chen X.B., Gomes M.J., Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives - an overview of the technical details, Occasional publication 1992, International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen (UK), 1995. chema.pdf.
Conway E.J., Microdiffusion analysis and volumetric error, Crosby, Lockwood and Son, Ltd, London, 1957.
Cottrill B.R., Beever D.E., Austin A.R., Osbourn D.F., The effect of protein- and non-protein-nitrogen supplements to maize silage on total amino acid supply in young cattle, Brit. J. Nutr. 48 (1982) 527-541.
CVB, Voedernormen voor rundvee, Centraal Veevoederbureau, Lelystad, 1995.
Demeyer D., Quantitative aspects of microbial metabolism in the rumen and hindgut, in: Jouany J.P. (Ed.), Rumen microbial metabolism and ruminal digestion, INRA, Paris, 1991, pp. 217-237.
Demeyer D., Van Nevel C., Influence of substrate and microbial interaction on efficiency of rumen microbial growth, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 26 (1986) 161-179.
Dierick N., Studie van de invloed van de darmflora en van enkele groeibevorderende voederadditiva op het stikstofmetabolisme bij het varken, Ph.D. thesis in Agricultural Sciences, Ghent University, 1985.
Diez M., Hornick J.L., Baldwin P., van Eenaeme C., Istasse L., The influence of sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin on nutrient digestibility, water consumption and plasma metabolites in healthy Beagle dogs, Res. Vet. Sci. 64 (1998) 91-96.
Dijkstra J., France J., Comparison of protein evaluation models for ruminants, S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29 (1999) 162-163.
Dijkstra J., France J., Davies D.R., Different mathematical approaches to estimating microbial protein supply in ruminants, J. Dairy Sci. 81 (1998) 3370-3384.
Fievez V., De Fauw K., Notteboom K., Demeyer D., Validation of the degraded protein balance to predict efficiency of rumen N-utilisation, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 40 (2000) 203-204.
Firkins J.L., Weis W.P., Piwonka E.J., Quantification of intraruminal recycling of microbial nitrogen using nitrogen-15, J. Anim. Sci. 70 (1992) 3223-3233.
Giesecke D, Balsliemke J., Südekum K.H., Stangassinger M., Plasmaspiegel, clearance sowie renale Ausscheiding von endogenen und ruminalen Purinen beim Rind, Anim. Physiol. a. Anim. Nutr. 70 (1993) 180-189.
Gonda H.L., Lindberg J.E., Evaluation of dietary nitrogen utilization in dairy cows based on urea concentrations in blood, urine and milk, and urinary concentration of purine derivatives, Acta Agric. Scand. 44 (1994) 236-245.
Gonda H.L., Emmanuelson M., Murphy M., The effect of roughage to concentrate ratio in the diet on nitrogen and purine metabolism in dairy cows, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 64 (1996) 27-42.
Gustafsson A.H., Palmquist D.L., Diurnal variation of rumen ammonia, serum urea, and milk urea in dairy cows at high and low yields, J. Dairy Sci. 76 (1993) 475-484.
Henning P.H., Stey D.G., Meissner H.H., Effect of synchronization of energy and nitrogen supply on ruminal characteristics and microbial growth, J. Anim. Sci. 71 (1993) 2516-2528.
Herbert D., Phipps P.J., Strange R.E., Determination of RNA by the orcinol method, in: Norris J.R., Ribbons D.W. (Eds.), Methods in microbiology, Volume 5b, Academic Press Inc., London, 1971, pp. 316-320.
Herrera-Saldana R., Gomez-Alarcon R., Torabi M., Huber J.T., Influence of synchronizing protein and starch degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization and microbial protein synthesis, J. Dairy Sci. 73 (1990) 142-148.
Hoover W.H., Stokes S.R., Balancing carbohydrates and proteins for optimal rumen microbial yield, J. Dairy Sci. 74 (1991) 3630-3644.
Hume I.D., Miror R.J., Somers M., Synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. 1. Influence of the level of nitrogen intake, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 21 (1970), 283-296.
Jouany J.P., Demeyer D., Grain J., Effect of defaunating the rumen, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21 (1988) 229-265.
Kayouli C., Van Nevel C.J., Dendooven R., Demeyer D., Effect of defaunation and refaunation of the rumen on rumen fermentation and N-flow in the duodenum of sheep, Arch. Anim. Nutr. 36 (1986) 827-837.
Kennedy P.M., Milligan L.P., The degradation and utilization of endogenous urea in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants: a review, Can. J. Agric. Sci. 60 (1980) 205-211.
Kim K.H., Choung J.J., Chamberlain D.G., Effects of varying the degree of synchrony of energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on the synthesis of microbial protein in lactating dairy cows consuming a diet of grass silage and a cereal-based concentrate, J. Sci. Food Agric. 79 (1999) 1441-1447.
Maeng W.J., Baldwin R.L., Factors influencing rumen microbial growth rates and yields: effect of amino acid additions to a purified diet with nitrogen from urea, J. Dairy Sci. 59 (1976) 648-655.
Marty R., Demeyer D., The effect of inhibitors on methane production, on fermentation pattern and stoichiometry in vitro using contents of sheep given molasses, Brit. J. Nutr. 30 (1973) 369-376.
Mbanzamihigo L., Vandycke E., Demeyer D.I., Degradation of methionine by rumen contents in vitro and efficiency of its protection, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67 (1997) 339-347.
McAllan A.B., Smith R.H., Nucleic acid metabolism in the ruminant, Brit. J. Nutr. 23 (1969) 671-682.
McCarthy R.D. Jr., Klusmeyer T.H., Vicini J.L., Clark J.H., Nelson D.R., Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows, J. Dairy Sci. 72 (1989) 2002-2016.
Neal H.D.St.C., Dijkstra J., Gill M., Simulation of nutrient digestion, absorption and outflow in the rumen: model evaluation, J. Nutr. 122 (1992) 2257-2272.
Nocek J.E., Russell J.B., Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal protein and carbohydrate availability on microbial synthesis and milk production, J. Dairy Sci. 71 (1988) 2070-2107.
Oltner R., Wiktorsson H., Urea concentration in milk and blood as influenced by feeding varying amounts of protein and energy to dairy cows, Livest. Prod. Sci. 10 (1983) 457-467.
Orkie A.U., Buttery P.J., Lewis D., Ammonia concentration and protein synthesis in the rumen, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36 (1977) 38-49.
Peyraud J.L., Le Liboux S., Vérité R., Effet du niveau et de la nature de l'azote dégradable sur la digestion ruminale d'un régime à base d'ensilage de maïs chez la vache laitière, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 37 (1997) 313-328.
Rosskopf R., Rainer H., Giesecke D., Purin- und Pyrimidinmetaboliten zur Beurteilung des Pansenstoffwechsels: HPLC-Analysen in Milch und Blutplasma, Arch. Anim. Nutr. 41 (1991) 411-426.
Russell J.B., Strobel J.H., Concentration of ammonia across cell membranes of mixed rumen bacteria, J. Dairy Sci. 70 (1987) 970-976.
Russell J.B., O'Connor J.D., Fox D.G., Van Soest P.J., Sniffen C.J., A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. Ruminal fermentation, J. Anim. Sci. 70 (1992) 3551-3561.
Satter L.D., Slyter L.L., Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro, Brit. J. Nutr. 32 (1974) 199-208.
Shingfield K.J., Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminant animals based on renal and mammary purine metabolite excretion. A review, J. Anim. Food Sci. 9 (2000) 169-212.
Sinclair L.A., Garnsworthy P.C., Newbold J.R., Buttery P.J., Effect of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep, J. Agric. Sci. 120 (1993) 251-263.
Sinclair L.A., Garnsworthy P.C., Newbold J.R., Buttery P.J., Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep, J. Agric. Sci. 124 (1995) 463-472.
Sniffen C.J., O'Connor J.D., Van Soest P.J, Fox D.G., Russell J.B., A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability, J. Anim. Sci. 70 (1992) 3562-3577.
Stangassinger M., Chen X.B. Lindberg J.E., Giesecke D., Metabolism of purines in relation to microbial production, in: Engelhardt W.V., Leonhard-Marek S., Breves G., Giesecke D. (Eds.), Ruminant Physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth and reproduction. Proceedings of the eight international symposium on ruminant physiology, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, 1995, pp. 387-406.
Tamminga S., Van Straalen W.M., Subnel A.P.J., Meijer R.G.M., Steg A., Wever C.J.G., Blok M.C., The Dutch protein evaluation system: the DVE/OEB-system, Livest. Prod. Sci. 40 (1994) 139-155.
Topps J.H., Elliot R.C. Relationship between concentrations of ruminal nucleic acids and excretion of purine derivatives by sheep, Nature 205 (1965) 498-499.
Vagnoni D.B., Broderick G.A., Clayton M.K., Hatfield R.D., Excretion of purine derivatives by Holstein cows abomasally infused with incremental amounts of purines, J. Dairy Sci. 80 (1997) 1695-1702.
Van Gelder A.H., Cone J.W., Het meten van verschillen in microbiële groei met de gasproductietechniek, Proceedings 23th Studiedag Nederlandstalige Voedingsonderzoekers, Utrecht, 1998, pp. 21-22 (in Dutch).
Vérité R., Michalet-Doreau B., Chapoutot P., Peyraud J.L., Poncet C., Révision du système de protéines digestibles dans l'intestin (PDI), Bull. Tech. CRZV Theix, INRA 70 (1987) 19-34.


Copyright INRA, EDP Sciences