Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
Volume 45, Number 5, September-October 2005
|Page(s)||613 - 631|
Signaling and interplay mediated by phospholipases A2, C, and D in LA-N-1 cell nucleiAkhlaq A. Farooqui and Lloyd A. Horrocks
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
(Received 4 January 2005; accepted 4 May 2005)
Abstract - Phospholipids are integral components of the nuclear membranes and intranuclear domains. Alterations in phospholipid metabolism occur during cellular differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the molecular mechanism involved in the above processes remains unknown. We propose that the coordinated expression of different genes responsible for the expression of transcription factors, neurotrophins, and cytokines, along with lipid mediators generated by the action of phospholipases A2, C, and D (PLA2, PLC, and PLD), play a very important role in differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The purpose of this minireview is to discuss recent developments in PLA2, PLC, and PLD-mediated signaling in the nucleus of LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cell cultures. In brain tissue, arachidonic acid is mainly released by the action of PLA2 and phospholipase C/diacylglycerol lipase (PLC/DAG-lipase) pathways. We have used LA-N-1 cell cultures to study activities of PLA2, C, and D during retinoic acid (RA)-mediated differentiation. The treatment of LA-N-1 cells with RA produces an increase in PLA2 activity in the nuclear fraction. This increase in PLA2 activity can be prevented with BMS493, a pan retinoic acid receptor antagonist, suggesting that RA-induced stimulation of PLA2 activity is a RA receptor-mediated process. The treatment of LA-N-1 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) and RA increases diacylglycerol (DAG) levels indicating the stimulation of PLC activity. This stimulation is blocked by D609, tricyclodecan-9-yl potassium xanthate, a competitive PtdCho-specific PLC inhibitor. LA-N-1 cells also contain DAG-and monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase activities. Two isoforms of PLD, oleate-dependent and TPA-dependent, are also present in LA-N-1 cell homogenates. RA stimulates the oleate-dependent isoform of PLD, whereas RA does not stimulate the TPA-dependent isoform. Our studies have indicated that lipid mediators generated by the action of PLA2, PLC, and PLD on nuclear phospholipids markedly affect neuritic outgrowth and neurotransmitter release in cells of neuronal and glial origin. We propose that RA receptors coupled with PLA2, PLC, and PLD activities in the nucleus may play an important role in the redistribution of arachidonic acid and its metabolites and DAG in nuclear and non-nuclear neuronal membranes during differentiation and growth suppression.
Key words: nucleus / phospholipase A2 / phospholipase C / phospholipase D / arachidonic acid / eicosanoids / peroxisome proliferators activated receptor
Corresponding author: Lloyd A. Horrocks firstname.lastname@example.org
© INRA, EDP Sciences 2005