Free Access
Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
Volume 42, Number 2, March-April 2002
Page(s) 173 - 186


  1. Adams H.P., Allen N.N., The value of oxytocin for reducing fluctuations in milk and fat yield, J. Dairy Sci. 35 (1952) 1117.
  2. Allen D.B., DePeters E.J., Laben R.C., Three times a day milking: effects on milk production, reproductive efficiency, and udder health, J. Dairy Sci. 69 (1986) 1441-1446.
  3. Amos H.E., Kiser T., Loewenstein M., Influence of milking frequency on productive and reproductive efficiencies of dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 732-739.
  4. Armstrong D.V., Milking frequency. Internet communication: nutrition-14.htm, 1999.
  5. Ballou L.U., Bleck J.L., Bleck G.T., Bremel R.D., The effects of daily oxytocin injections before and after milking on milk production, milk plasmin, and milk composition, J. Dairy Sci. 76 (1993) 1544-1549.
  6. Barnes M.A., Pearson R.E., Lukes-Wilson A.J., Effects of milking frequency and selection for milk yield on productive efficiency of Holstein cows, J. Dairy Sci. 73 (1990) 1603-1611.
  7. Bar-Peled U., Maltz E., Bruckental I., Folman Y., Kali Y., Gacitua H., Lehrer A.R., Knight C.H., Robinzon B., Voet H., Relationship between frequent milking or suckling in early lactation and milk production of high producing dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci. 78 (1995) 2726-2736.
  8. Bennett C.N., Knight C.H., Wilde C.J., Regulation of mammary prolactin binding by a secreted milk protein, J. Endocrinol. (suppl.) 127 (1990) 141.
  9. Bremel R.D., Action of oxytocin on mammary myoepithelial cells, in: Proc. Oxytocin: Clin. Lab. Stud., Elsevier Sci. Publ., Amsterdam, 1985, p. 303.
  10. Bruckmaier R.M., Schams D., Blum J.W., Milk removal in familiar and unfamiliar surroundings: concentrations of oxytocin, prolactin, cortisol and beta-endorphin, J. Dairy Res. 60 (1993) 449-456.
  11. Bruckmaier R.M., Schams D., Blum J.W., Continuously elevated concentrations of oxytocin during milking are necessary for complete milk removal in dairy cows, J. Dairy Res. 61 (1994) 323-334.
  12. Bruckmaier R.M., Wellnitz O., Blum J.W., Inhibition of milk ejection in cows by oxytocin receptor blockade, alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation and in unfamiliar surroundings, J. Dairy Res. 64 (1997) 315-325.
  13. Campos M.S., Wilcox C.J., Webb D.W., Hayen J., Effects on production of milking three times daily on first lactation Holsteins and Jerseys in Florida, J. Dairy Sci. 77 (1994) 770-773.
  14. Carruthers V.R., Davis S.R., Copeman P.J., Effects of oxytocin, machine stripping and milking rate on production loss of cows milked once a day, J. Dairy Res. 60 (1993) 13-18.
  15. Claesson O., Hansson A., Gustafsson N., Brannang E., Studies on monozygous cattles twins. XVII. Once-a-day milking compared twice-a-day milking, Acta Agric. Scand. 9 (1959) 38-58.
  16. Cowie A.T., Lactation, in: Austin and Short, Reproduction in Mammals, Book 3: Hormonal control of reproduction, Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 228-230.
  17. Da Costa T.H.M., Ilic V., Williamson D.H., In vitro effects on oxytocin and ionomycin on lipid secretion by rat mammary gland, Role of the myoepithelial cells, in: Wilde, Peaker and Knight, Intercellular Signalling in the Mammary Gland, Plenum Press, New-York, 1995, p. 265.
  18. Davis S.R., Farr V.C., Copeman P.J.A., Carruthers V.R., Knight C.H., Stelwagen K., Partitioning of milk accumulation between cisternal and alveolar compartments of the bovine udder: relationship to production loss during once daily milking, J. Dairy Res. 65 (1998) 1-8.
  19. Davis S.R., Farr V.C., Stelwagen K., Regulation of yield loss and milk composition during once-daily milking: a review, Livest. Prod. Sci. 59 (1999) 77-94.
  20. Denamur R., The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system and the milk ejection reflex, Dairy Sci. Abst. 27 (1965) 193-254.
  21. DePeters E.J., Smith N.E., Acedo-Rico J., Three or two times daily milking of older cows and first lactation cows for entire lactations, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 123-132.
  22. Dill C.W., Lane G.T., Hartsfield S.N., Influence of repeated oxytocic treatments on composition of bovine milk fat, J. Dairy Sci. 57 (1974) 1164-1169.
  23. Donker J.D., Koshi J.H., Petersen W.E., The effects of hourly milking with the aid of intravenous injection of oxytocin, J. Dairy Sci. 37 (1954) 1261.
  24. Donnelly S.R., Moss S.E., Annexins in the secretory pathway, Cell Mol. Life Sci. 53 (1997) 533-538.
  25. Elliott G.M., The direct effect of milk accumulation in the udder of the dairy cow upon milk secretion rate, Dairy Sci. Abstr. 21 (1959) 435-439.
  26. Ely F., Petersen W.E., Factors involved in the ejection of milk, J. Dairy Sci. 24 (1941) 211-223.
  27. Fleet I.R., Davis A.J., Richardson M., Heap R.B., The stimulation of mammary blood flow by oxytocin and the potential role of locally released nitric oxide in the goat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 11 (1993) 104.
  28. Flint D.J., Knight C.H., Interactions of prolactin and growth hormone (GH) in the regulation of mammary gland function and epithelial cell survival, J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2 (1997) 41-48.
  29. Fowler P.A., Knight C.H., Cameron G.G., Foster M.A., In-vivo studies of mammary development in the goat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), J. Reprod. Fertil. 89 (1990) 367-375.
  30. Galton D.M., Merrill W.G., Maximizing milk secretion through management, Internet Communication: Topic/Agr, 1998.
  31. Gorewit R.C., Sagi R., Effects of exogenous oxytocin on production and milking variables of cows, J. Dairy Sci. 67 (1984) 2050-2054.
  32. Graf G.C., Factors affecting intramammary pressures, J. Dairy Sci. 51 (1968) 1672-1675.
  33. Graf G.C., Ejection of milk in relation to levels of oxytocin injected intramuscularly, J. Dairy Sci. 52 (1969) 1003-1007.
  34. Graf G.C., Ejection of milk in relation to oxytocin injected intravenously, J. Dairy Sci. 53 (1970) 1283-1285.
  35. Guinard-Flament J., Rulquin H., Effect of once daily milking on mammary blood flow (MBF) in dairy cows, Livest. Prod. Sci. 70 (2001) 180.
  36. Guinard-Flament J., Michalski M.C., Rulquin H., Evolution of milk fat content and fat globule diameter according to milking time in dairy cows. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 2001, Paris, France.
  37. Hart I.C., Flux D.S., The release of growth hormone in response to milking in the goat during early and late lactation, J. Endocrinol. 57 (1973) 177-178.
  38. Hillerton J.E., Knight C.H., Turvey A., Wheatley S.D., Wilde C.J., Milk yield and mammary function in dairy cows milked four times daily, J. Dairy Res. 57 (1990) 285-294.
  39. Hobbs A.A., Richard D.A., Kessler D.J., Rosen J.M., Complex hormonal regulation of rat casein gene expression, J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 3598-3605.
  40. Holmes C.W., Wilson G.F., MacKenzie D.D.S., The effects of milking once daily throughout lactation on the performance of dairy cows grazing on pasture, in: Proceedings, N.Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 52 (1992) 13-16.
  41. Houvenaghel A., Peeters G., Verschooten F., Influences of manual udder stimulation and oxytocin on mammary artery blood flow in lactating cows, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 205 (1973) 124-133.
  42. Ipema A.H., Benders E., Production, duration of machine-milking and teat quality of dairy cows milked 2, 3 or 4 times daily with variable intervals, in: Prospects for Automatic Milking, Pudoc Scientific Pub., Wageningen, 1992, pp. 244-252.
  43. Johannsson I., Studies on udder evacuation in dairy cows. II. The amount and composition of the residual milk after normal milkings, Acta Agric. Scand. 2 (1952) 22-36.
  44. Kann G., Habert R., Meusnier C., Ryniewicz H.S., Prolactin release in response to nursing or milking stimulus in the ewe. Is it mediated by thyrotrophin releasing hormone?, Ann. Biol. Anim., Biochim. Biophys. 17 (1977) 441-452.
  45. Keys J.E., Capuco A.V., Akers R.M., Djiane J., Comparative study of mammary gland development and differentiation between beef and dairy heifers, Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 6 (1989) 311-319.
  46. Kimura T., Ito Y., Einspanier A., Tohya K., Nobunaga T., Tokugawa Y., Takemura M., Kubota Y., Ivell R., Matsuura N., Saji F., Murata Y., Expression and immunolocalization of the oxytocin receptor in human lactating and non-lactating mammary glands, Hum. Reprod. 13 (1998) 2645-2653.
  47. Klei L.R., Lynch J.M., Barbano D.M., Oltenacu P.A., Lednor A.J., Bandler D.K., Influence of milking three times a day on milk quality, J. Dairy Sci. 80 (1997) 427-436.
  48. Knight C.H., Short-term oxytocin treatment increases bovine milk yield by enhancing milk removal without any direct action on mammary metabolism, J. Endocrinol. 142 (1994) 471-473.
  49. Knight C.H., Mammary cell changes during pregnancy and lactation, Livest. Prod. Sci. 35 (1993) 3-19.
  50. Knight C.H., Fowler P.A., Wilde C.J., Galactopoietic and mammogenic effects of long-term treatment with bovine growth hormone and thrice daily milking in goats, J. Endocrinol. 127 (1990) 129-138.
  51. Knight C.H., Hillerton J.E., Kerr M.A., Teverson R.M., Turvey A., Wilde C.J., Separate and additive stimulation of bovine milk yield by the local and systemic galactopoietic stimuli of frequent milking and growth hormone, J. Dairy Res. 59 (1992) 243-252.
  52. Knight C.H., Dewhurst R.J., Once daily milking of dairy cows: relationship between yield loss and cisternal milk storage, J. Dairy Res. 61 (1994) 441-449.
  53. Labussière J., Composition du lait et techniques de traite chez quelques espèces domestiques, Bull. Tech. C.R.Z.V. 61 (1985) 49-58.
  54. Labussière J., Ricordeau G., Aptitude à la traite mécanique des brebis de race Préalpes du Sud et croisées Frison ¥ Préalpes. Étude à différents stades de la lactation, Ann. Zootech. 19 (1970) 159-190.
  55. Labussière J., Martinet J., Denamur R., The influence of the milk ejection reflex on the flow rate during the milking of ewes, J. Dairy Res. 36 (1969) 191-200.
  56. Labussière J., Combaud J.F, Pétrequin P., Influence de la fréquence des traites et des tétées sur la production laitière des brebis Préalpes du Sud, Ann. Zootech. 23 (1974) 445-457.
  57. Labussière J., Marnet P.G., Combaud J.F., Beaufils M., de la Chevalerie F.A., Influence of the number of corpora lutea on the release of luteal oxytocin, the transfer of alveolar milk to the cistern and milk production in the ewe, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 33 (1993) 383-393.
  58. Li P., Rudland P.S., Fernig D.G., Finch L.M., Wilde C.J., Modulation of mammary development and programmed cell death by the frequency of milk removal in lactating goats, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 519 (1999) 885-900.
  59. Linzell J.L., Peaker M., The effects of oxytocin and milk removal on milk secretion in the goat, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 216 (1971) 717-734.
  60. Loerch S.C., McClure K.E., Parker C.F., Effects of number of lambs suckled and supplemental protein source on lactating ewe performance, J. Anim. Sci. 60 (1985) 6-13.
  61. Lollivier V., Rainteau D., Marnet P.G., Letort S., Delpal S., Ollivier-Bousquet M., Early oxytocin effects on secretory events in rabbit and cow mammary cells, Livest. Prod. Sci. 70 (2001) 180.
  62. Marnet P.G., McKusick B.C., Regulation of milk ejection and milkability in small ruminants, Livest. Prod. Sci. 70 (2001) 125-133.
  63. Martal J., Chene N., Placenta et lactation, in: Biologie de la lactation, Martinet et Houdebine, INSERM/INRA (Ed.), Paris, 1993, pp. 31-54.
  64. Martinet J., Denamur R., Étude préliminaire des mécanismes de l'évacuation du lait de la glande mammaire chez la chèvre et la brebis, Arch. Sci. Physiol. 14 (1960) 35-96.
  65. McKusick B.C., Wiltbank M.C., Sartori R., Marnet P.G., Thomas D.L., Effect of presence or absence of corpora lutea on milk production in East Friesian dairy ewes, J. Dairy Sci. 85 (2002) 790-796.
  66. McKusick B.C., Thomas D.L., Berger Y.M., Marnet P.G., Effect of milking interval on alveolar versus cisternal milk accumulation and milk production and composition in dairy ewes, J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  67. McKusick B.C., Thomas D.L., Romero J.L., Marnet P.G., Effect of weaning system on milk composition and distribution of milk fat within the udder of East Friesian dairy ewes, J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  68. Negrao J.A., Marnet P.G., Labussière J., Effect of milking frequency on oxytocin release and milk production in dairy ewes, Small Ruminants Res. (2001) 181-187.
  69. Nishimori K., Young L.J., Guo Q., Wang Z., Insel T.R., Matzuk M.M., Oxytocin is required for nursing but not essential for parturition or reproductive behaviour, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 11699-11704.
  70. Nickerson S.C., Smith J.J., Keenen T.W., Role of microtubules in milk secretion - Action of colchicine on microtubules and exocytosis of secretory vesicles in rat mammary epithelial cells, Cell. Tissue Res. 207 (1980) 361-376.
  71. Nostrand S.D., Galton D.M., Erb H.N., Bauman D.E., Effects of daily exogenous oxytocin on lactation milk yield and composition, J. Dairy Sci. 74 (1991) 2119-2127.
  72. Ollivier-Bousquet M., In vitro effect of oxytocin on intracellular transit and secretion of milk proteins, C.R. Acad. Sci. D 282 (1976) 1433-1436.
  73. Peaker M., The effect of raised intramammary pressure on mammary function in the goat in relation to cessation of lactation, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 301 (1980) 415-428.
  74. Peaker M., Blatchford D.R., Distribution of milk secretion in the goat mammary gland and its relation to the rate and control of milk secretion, J. Dairy Res. 55 (1988) 41-48.
  75. Pearl S.L., Downey H.F., Lepper T.L., Intramammary pressure and mammary blood flow in lactating goats, J. Dairy Sci. 56 (1973) 1319-1323.
  76. Pearson R.E., Fulton L.A., Thompson P.D., Smith J.W., Three times a day milking during the first half of lactation, J. Dairy Sci. 62 (1979) 1941-1950.
  77. Pelissier C.L., Koong L.J., Bennett L.F., Influence of milking 3 times daily on milk and fat production, J. Dairy Sci. (suppl.) 61 (1978) 132.
  78. Pfeilsticker H.U., Bruckmaier R.M., Blum J.W., Cisternal milk in the dairy cow during lactation and after preceding teat stimulation, J. Dairy Res. 63 (1996) 509-515.
  79. Quarrie L., Addey C.V., Wilde C.J., Local control of mammary apoptosis by milk stasis, in: Intercellular Signalling in the Mammary Gland, Plenum Press, New-York, 1995, pp. 95-96.
  80. Rémond B., Boit M.P., Effects of milking three times in 2 days for 3 weeks in early lactation or in the declining phase on milk production in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows, Ann. Zootech. 46 (1997) 339-348.
  81. Reynolds M., Linzell J.L., Rasmussen F., Comparison of four methods for measuring mammary blood flow in conscious goats, Am. J. Physiol. 214 (1968) 1415-1424.
  82. Sagi R., Gorewit R.C., Wilson D.B., Role of exogenous oxytocin in eliciting milk ejection in dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci. 63 (1980) 2006-2011.
  83. Sapino A., Macri L., Tonda L., Bussolati G., Oxytocin enhances myoepithelial cell differentiation and proliferation in the mouse mammary gland, Endocrinol. 133 (1993) 838-842.
  84. Schams D., Mayer H., Prokopp A., Worstorff H., Oxytocin secretion during milking in dairy cows with regard to the variation and importance of a threshold level for milk removal, J. Endocrinol. 102 (1984) 337-343.
  85. Snowder G.D., Glimp H.A., Influence of breed, number of suckling lambs, and stage of lactation on ewe milk production and lamb growth under range conditions, J. Anim. Sci. 69 (1991) 923-930.
  86. Stelwagen K., Effect of milking frequency on mammary functioning and shape of the lactation curve, J. Dairy Sci. (Suppl.) 84 (2001) E204-E211.
  87. Stelwagen K., Knight C.H., Effect of unilateral once or twice daily milking of cows on milk yield and udder characteristics in early and late lactation, J. Dairy Res. 64 (1997) 487-494.
  88. Stelwagen K., Lacy-Hulbert S.J., Effect of milking frequency on milk somatic cell count characteristics and mammary secretory cell damage in cows, Am. J. Vet. Res. 57 (1996) 902-905.
  89. Stelwagen K., Davis S.R., Farr V.C., Prosser C.G., Sherlock R.A., Mammary epithelial cell tight junction integrity and mammary blood flow during an extended milking interval in goats, J. Dairy Sci. 77 (1994) 426-432.
  90. Swann S.W., O'Shaughnessy P.J., Birkett S.D., Wathes D.C., Porter D.G., Pickering B.T., Biosynthesis of oxytocin in the corpus luteum, FEBS Lett. 174 (1984) 262-266.
  91. Szücs E., Acs I., Ugry K., Sas M., Török I., Fodor E., Three-times-a-day milking in high productivity cow stock, Acta Agron. Hung. 37 (1988) 123-133.
  92. Tonner E., Allan G.J., Flint D.J., Hormonal control of plasmin and tissue-type plasminogen activator activity in rat milk during involution of the mammary gland, J. Endocrinol. 167 (2000) 265-273.
  93. Travers M.T., Barber M.C., Tonner E., Quarrie L., Wilde C.J., Flint D.J., The role of prolactin and growth hormone in the regulation of casein gene expression and mammary cell survival: relationships to milk synthesis and secretion, Endocrinology 137 (1996) 1530-1539.
  94. Van der Iest R., Hillerton J.E., Short-term effects of frequent milking of dairy cows, J. Dairy Res. 56 (1989) 587-592.
  95. Wakerly J.B., Clarke G., Summerlee A.J.S., Milk ejection and its control, in: Knobil E., Neill J.D. (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, Raven Press, Ltd., New York, 1994, pp. 1131-1171.
  96. Wathes D.C., Swann R.W., Is oxytocin an ovarian hormone?, Nature 297 (1982) 225-227.
  97. Watkins W.B., Immunohistochemical localization of neurophysin and oxytocin in the sheep corpora lutea, Neuropeptides 4 (1983) 51-54.
  98. Wheelock J.V., Smith A., Dood F.N., The effect of a temporary suspension of milking in mid lactation on milk secretion after the resumption of milking and in the following lactation, J. Dairy Res. 34 (1967) 151-161.
  99. Wilde C.J., Calvert D.T., Daly A., Peaker M., The effect of goat milk fractions on synthesis of milk constituents by rabbit mammary explants and on milk yield in vivo, Biochem. J. 242 (1987) 285-288.
  100. Wilde C.J., Addey C.V., Casey M.J., Blatchford D.R., Peaker M., Feed-back inhibition of milk secretion: the effect of a fraction of goat milk on milk yield and composition, Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 73 (1988) 391-397.
  101. Wilde C.J., Addey C.V., Knight C.H., Regulation of intracellular casein degradation by secreted milk proteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 992 (1989) 315-319.
  102. Wilde C.J., Addey C.V., Boddy L.M., Peaker M., Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk, Biochem. J. 305 (1995) 51-58.
  103. Young W.S., Shepard E., Amico J., Hennighausen L., Wagner K.U., LaMarca M.E., McKinney C., Ginns E.I., Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition, J. Neuroendocrinol. 8 (1996) 847-853.
  104. Zaks M.G., The motor apparatus of the mammary gland, Oliver et Boyd, Edinburg, 1962.


Copyright INRA, EDP Sciences

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.